**John H. Reif
Spring Semester, 2009**

**Required Class
Text Books:** (digital text
books [AB] and [G] used by permission)

- [Pap] Christos
Papadimitriou. Computational Complexity.
*Addison-Wesley Longman*, 1994. Errata. - [AB] Sanjeev
Arora and Boaz Barak, Computational Complexity: A Modern Approach,
digital preprint of yet to be published book, Princeton University.
- [G] Oded
Goldreich, Computational
Complexity: A Conceptual Perspective, digital preprint of yet to be
published book, Weizmann Institute.

**Additional Readings in Complexity
Theory: **([T]
used by permission)

- [GJ] M. Garey and D. Johnson. Computers and
intractability: A guide to NP-Completeness.
*W. H. Freeman & Co.*, 1979. - [HMU] J. Hopcroft, R.
Motwani, and J. Ullman. Introduction to automata theory, language, and
computation.
*Addison Wesley*, 2001

- [T]
Martin Tompa, Introduction to Computational
Complexity, unpublished digital notes, University of Washington

- S. C. Kleene, Origins of recursive function theory, Annals
of the History of Computing, 3 (1981), 52-67.
- M. Davis, Why Godel didn't have Church's thesis, Information
and Control 54 (1982), 3-24.
- J. Hartmanis, Observations about the development of
theoretical computer science, Annals of the History of Computing,
3 (1981), 42-51.
- M. Sipser, The history and status of the P versus NP question, Proc.
24th Annual ACM Symposium. Theory of Computing, 1992, 603-619.

- J.E. Hopcroft, Turing machines, Scientific
American, 250:5 (1984), 86-98.
- A. M. Turing, On computable numbers, with an application to the
*Entscheidungsproblem*, Proc. London Math. Scoiety, 2 (1936), 230-265.

- J. Hartmanis and R. E. Stearns, On the computational
complexity of algorithms, Transactions of AMS, 117 (1965),
285-306.
- M. Rabin, Degree of difficulty of computing a function and a
partial ordering of recursive sets, Tech Rept 2, Hebrew University, 1960.

- R. E. Ladner, On the structure of polynomial time
reducibility, J. ACM 22 (1975), 155-171.
- R. E. Ladner, N. A. Lynch, and A. L. Selman, A comparison of
polynomial time reducibilities, Theoretical Computer Science
1 (1975), 103-123.

- J. Canny, Some algebraic and geometric computations
in PSPACE, Proc. 20th Annual ACM Sympos. Theory of Comput.,
1988, 460-467.
- M. Fischer and M. Rabin, Super-exponential complexity of
Persburger arithmetic, in Complexity of Computation, (R. M.
Kapr, ed.), SIAM.

- [CKS] A. Chandra, D. Kozen, and L. Stockmeyer, Alternation, JACM
28 (1981), 114-133.

- [BF] L. Babai and L. Fortnow, Arithmetization: A new method in
structural complexity theory Comput. Complexity 1 (1991),
41-66.
- [L] C. Lund, The Power of Interaction, MIT Press,
1992.

- [ALMSS] S. Arora, C. Lund, R. Motwani, M. Sudan, and M.
Szegedy, Proof verification and intractability of approximation problems, J.
ACM 45 (1998), 501-555.
- [AS] S. Arora and S. Safra, Probabilistic checking of proofs: A
new characterization of NP, J. ACM 45 (1998), 70-122.
- [H1] J. Hastad, Clique is hard to approximate within n^{1-e}, Acta
Math 182 (1999), 105-142.
- [H2] J. Hastad, Some optimal inapproximability results, J.
ACM 48 (2001), 798-859.
- [HPS] S. Hougardy, H.J. Promel, and A. Steger,
Probabilistically checkable proofs and their consequences for
approximation algorithms, Discrete Math. 136 (1994), 175-223.

- [A] Scott
Aaronson, Is P Versus NP Formally Independent? Bulletin of the EATCS 81:
109-136 (2003).